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同济大学考博英语历年真题及详解

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同济大学考博英语历年真题及详解

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[电子书]同济大学考博英语历年真题及详解


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内容简介
目录

2008年同济大学考博英语真题及详解

2007年同济大学考博英语真题及详解
2006年同济大学考博英语真题及详解
2005年同济大学考博英语真题及详解
2004年同济大学考博英语真题及详解
2000年同济大学考博英语真题
1999年同济大学考博英语真题

隐藏内容简介

考博真题是每个考生复习备考必不可少的资料,而拥有一份权威、正确的参考答案尤为重要,通过研究历年真题能洞悉考试出题难度和题型,了解常考章节与重要考点,能有效指明复习方向。

《同济大学考博英语历年真题及详解》由圣才考研网组织人员严格按照同济大学考博英语考试大纲精心编写而成。本书收录1999~20002004~2008年7套考试真题,其中2004~2008年真题含答案详解。本书中的解题思路清晰、答案翔实,帮助广大考生在熟练掌握知识点的同时,能够熟练运用各种题型的答题技巧,以提高应试技巧,把握答题节奏,增强自信心,提高考试分数。

历年真题是很有价值的复习备考资料,通过研习考博真题,可以了解本考试科目的出题风格、难度及命题点。

隐藏试读(部分内容)

2008年同济大学考博英语真题及详解

I. Vocabulary

Directions: For each of the following sentences there are four choices. Choose the best one to complete the sentence. Make your choices on the answer sheet.

1. After four years in the same job his enthusiasm finally ______

A. deteriorated

B. dispersed

C. dissipated  

D. drained

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:在同一个工作岗位上干了四年后,他的激情最终耗干了。drain逐渐消失,减少。deteriorate变质;恶化;磨损。disperse散开,(云雾等)消散。dissipate逐渐消散,驱散。

2. Before we move, we should ______ some of the old furniture, so that we can have more room in the new house.

A. cancel

B. conceal 

C. discard 

D. retain

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:搬家之前我们得扔掉一些旧家具,这样新房子里才会有更多的空间。discard扔掉,废弃不用。cancel废除,取消。conceal隐藏,保密。retain保持,保存。

3. Very few people could understand the lecture the professor delivered because its subject was very ______

A. obscure  

B. indefinite  

C. dubious 

D. intriguing

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:没有几个人能听懂教授讲的课,因为这个主题太难懂了。obscure难理解的,晦涩的。indefinite模糊的,不确定的,无限的。dubious意义不明确的,令人怀疑的。intriguing吸引人的,有趣的。

4. Please don’t ______ too much on the painful memories. Everything will be all right.

A. hesitate  

B. finger 

C. retain  

D. dwell

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:请不要对那些痛苦的回忆念念不忘了。一切都会好起来的。dwell on (心里)老是想着,惦记,不能释怀。其余选项不可与on搭配。hesitate犹豫,迟疑。

5. He didn’t mention your name but I was sure he was ______ to you.

A. intimating 

B. inferring

C. alluding 

D. suggesting

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:他没有提你的名字,但我肯定他提到过你。allude to (随便或间接地)提到,谈到,涉及。intimate to向…暗示。infer意味着,暗示。

6. The hands on my alarm clock are ______, so I can see what time it is in the duck.

A. exotic

B. gorgeous

C. luminous  

D. spectacular

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:我闹钟上的指针是带夜光的,因此在黑暗中我也能看清时间。luminous夜光的,发光的。exotic异国的,外来的。gorgeous华丽的,豪华的。spectacular壮观的,引人注意的。

7. No form of government in the world is ______; each system reflects the history and presents needs of the region and the nation.

A. dominant 

B. influential

C. integral 

D. drastic

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:在世界上,政府形式没有优劣之分;每个政府体系都反映了该地区或国家历史的或现在的需求。dominant占优势的,统治的。influential有权势的,有影响的。integral必不可少的,主要的,完整的。drastic强烈的,极端的,极广泛的。

8. Mutual respect for territorial ______ is one of the bases upon which our two countries develop relationships.

A. unity 

B. integrity 

C. entirety 

D. reliability

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:对领土完整的相互尊重是我们两国发展友好关系的基础之一。territorial integrity领土完整,固定搭配。

9. The losing candidate ______ immediately after the polls had closed.

A. confessed

B. conceded  

C. concurred  

D. admitted

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:投票数一揭晓,败北的候选人立即就认输了。concede承认失败,放弃…希望。confess承认错误,忏悔。concur意见相同,互助。admit承认,容许。

10. We have to ______ the routine expenditure; otherwise it will be impossible for us to afford a car.

A. decline

B. condense

C. curtail

D. dwindle

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:我们必须得减少日常开支,否则我们就不可能买得起车。curtail减少,削减。decline拒绝,使下降。condense使压缩,简写。dwindle使收缩,使减少,使衰退。

11. Tom was accused of ______ against black persons, that is to say, he looks down upon them.

A. discriminating

B. distinguishing

C. distressing

D. disguising

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:汤姆被控告歧视黑种人,也就是说他瞧不起他们。discriminate歧视,虐待。distinguish辨别出,发现,表示…的特性。distress使忧虑,使疼痛。disguise掩饰,隐瞒。

12. Since the two countries couldn’t ______ their differences, they decided to stop their negotiations.

A. rectify

B. oblige

C. reconcile

D. obscure

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:由于这两个国家不能协调他们之间的争端,他们决定停止谈判。reconcile协调,使一致。rectify矫正,调整。oblige迫使,帮…的忙。obscure使含混,遮盖。

13. It was ______ to continue the negotiation since both sides lack the sincerity.

A. fertile

B. futile

C. fugitive

D. fussy

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:既然双方都没有诚意,再谈判下去也是徒劳。futile无效的,徒劳的。fertile丰产的,富于创造力的。fugitive短暂的,易消失的。fussy大惊小怪的,总是瞎忙的。

14. It is advisable to ______ an electric wire with rubber in order to secure safety.

A. desolate

B. resolute

C. insolate

D. insulate

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:最好用橡胶把电线隔离开来以确保安全。insulate使隔绝,使绝缘。desolate使荒废,遗弃。resolute不屈不挠的,坚决的。insolate使曝晒。

15. The heavy snow ______ travel, so he had to stay here for more days.

A. impeached

B. impelled

C. impeded

D. imparted

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:大雪阻塞了交通,他不得不得在这多呆几天。impede阻碍,阻止。impeach指责,不信任。impel促使,推进。impart给予,告知。

16. The dictator’s first step was to ______ the free press.

A. strangle 

B. strand 

C. stratify 

D. estrange

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:独裁者的第一步就是扼杀言论自由。strangle使窒息,抑制。strand使处于困境,使搁浅。stratify使成层,使分层。estrange使疏远,转作他用。

17. After the disaster of flood, people all over the village made ______ effort to rebuild their home.

A. superfluous  

B. tenuous

C. strenuous  

D. fatuous

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:洪灾过后,全村的人都在艰苦地努力重建家园。strenuous艰苦地,紧张地。superfluous过多的,不相干的。tenuous单薄的,不重要的。fatuous昏庸的,发呆的。

18. I ______ my excitement about the upcoming holiday.

A. crash 

B. subdue   

C. conquer 

D. tranquilize

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:我强压着对即将来临的假期的兴奋。subdue使服从,压制,减弱。crash使撞坏,粉碎。conquer控制,战胜。tranquilize使镇静,使平静。

19. This method ______ my headache. It really takes effect.

A. soothes

B. sobers

C. soars

D. soaks

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:这种方法减轻了我的头疼。它还真管用。soothe缓和,使…安静,安慰。sober使清醒,使自制。soar向上飞,高涨。soak浸泡;铭记于心。

20. The farmer warned those children not to ______ on the corn.

A. collapse  

B. stripe

C. stride  

D. tramp

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:这个农民警告孩子们不要踩到玉米。tramp踩,践踏。collapse使倒塌,折叠。stripe给…加条纹,使具有线条。stride大步走,跨越。

II. Reading Comprehension (50%)

Directions: Read the following passages and chooses from the choices marked A, B, C and D that best complete or answer the questions after each passage. Mark your answer on the answer sheet.

Passage One

  Forty years ago no one was concerned about the health of the ocean, in spite of the fact that many fisheries were being overharvested, toxic wastes were being dumped in the sea, and developers were beginning to seriously disrupt coastlines. In those days, the magnitude of the problems was small, even though it was obvious that if the trends continued people would face severe economic and personal hardship in the future. People just didn’t understand, nor did they care. Unfortunately many of our concerns were realized, but the situation could have been much worse had we, and others, not taken action to inform people about the ocean and the need to protect it.

  During our campaign to share the wonders of the sea and alert the public about the need to protect it, we have used every medium available—personal appearances, the printed word, and television. Now there is a new medium that is even more effective than its predecessors. Thanks to the Internet and computers, people can not only receive linear stories, but they can actually participate in them, exploring and learning at their own pace and as their curiosity dictates. I am tremendously impressed with the personalization of what had been labeled by skeptics as the most impersonal medium yet developed.

  For these reasons I have made a major commitment of time and resources to dive into this sea of electronic marvels. I’m swimming hard to keep up, but when I look around I find I’m not alone. We are all learning together and it is an adventure I am finding immensely rewarding. I have been encouraged by our first modest dunking in this new world: We recently completed a CD-ROM. Jean-Michel Cousteau’s World: Cities Under the Sea—Coral Reefs. A couple of months ago I was in Fiji to celebrate the 1997 International year of the Reef and presented Our Cities Under the Sea CD-ROM to a group of children. I was impressed to see how quickly they grasped our concepts and how they directed their own learning process, thanks to the flexibility of the medium. It was particularly exciting to see kids squeal with delight as they responded to questions and the computer rewarded them when they got the correct answers.

 I want young people to experience the mystery and wonder of our oceans. I want them to understand how precious and vulnerable our environment is. Young people need to be taught to take responsibility for ensuring that their heritage will be protected and used wisely. Hopefully the next generation will do a better job than mine has. I believe individuals must be personally involved and I am counting on the Internet to be the medium through which people can experience, learn, and take action. I am counting on young people with their idealism and energy to create a better future—it is too important to be left to bureaucrats and politicians.

21. Forty years ago people were indifferent to the health of the ocean because ______

A. the ocean was immune to any pollution then

B. they didn’t know what would come of if the ocean was deadly disrupted

C. there was no computer then

D. there wasn’t any problem with the ocean at that time

22. The last sentence of the 2nd paragraph tells us that the writer believes that ______.

A. the computer is as smart as human beings

B. the computer is friends with human beings

C. human beings can interact with the computer and do what they want at their will

D. human beings have not used the computer to its fullest advantage

23.The writer went to Fiji to ______.

A. participate in a celebration

B. teach children there how to use the computer

C. make an adventure in the sea 

D. spend the holiday on the seashore

24. The writer’s attitude to the prospect of the ocean is ______.

A. desperate 

B. unconcerned 

C. optimistic 

D. pragmatic

25. According to the passage, who shall we fall back on for a better future for the environment?

 A. Our predecessor  

B. Politicians 

C. Computers 

D. Young people

【答案与解析】

21.B  第一段谈到对海洋的破坏及其可能对人类和经济产生严重危害时,作者提到People just didn’t understand, nor did they care.所以40年前人们不关心海洋的健康问题是因为他们不了解其危害性。

22.C  第二段最后一句意为“被怀疑论者标榜为没有人情味但又高度发展的媒体所具有的人性化特点给我留下了深刻印象。”由此可判断作者肯定了计算机具有的人性化特征。本句的前提是第二段倒数第二句Thanks to the Internet and computers,...exploring and learning at their own pace and as their curiosity dictates.“……人们不仅可以得到系列的信息,而且还可以根据自己的兴趣并以自己的进度并参与探索和研究”。 C项“作者认为学习者可以与计算机进行互动交流并根据自己的需求做自己想做的事”和这一表现最吻合,准确地反映了计算机的人性化特征;A、D项都不属于人性化特征;B项句意为:计算机是人类的朋友。概念很含糊,不能准确反映计算机的人性化特征。

23.A  第三段提到A couple of months ago I was in Fiji to celebrate...,即作者到Fiji是参加一个庆祝活动。

24.C  第一段末作者提到我们先前采取的措施已经使海洋恶化有所减轻;第二段提到各种媒介特别是网络和电脑的使用方便了我们宣传海洋的奇妙以及保护海洋的迫切性;最后一段提到希望年轻的一代能继承并发展我们保护海洋的行动。总的来说作者对海洋的未来是乐观的。

25.D  文章最后一句话提到I am counting on young people...to create a better future...。fall back on求助于,转而依靠。

Passage Two

  The field of sociology in the United States developed as a result of a social experience which had very little to do with the political and ideological controversies that stimulated sociology in France and Germany. Rather the discipline evolved as a result of the experiences associated with the problems of an immigrant society caught in the turmoil of rapid industrialization and urban growth. Indeed, it must be emphasized that from its beginning, sociology has had a very practical interest, which was characterized less by political divisiveness than by social reform and social work. This practical emphasis in the discipline has continued to persist to the present. It has only been since World War Ⅱ, however, that there has existed something in American higher education that could be properly termed a “sociological establishment” or a highly respected academic field of study. Its major strength as an academic discipline resulted from its empirical and sophisticated approach to the identification and solution of practical but highly significant social problems.

  Today, what does the academic sociologist do? Professional sociologists are individuals who study and teach about societies, social institutions, and the patterns of human interaction and human behavior. As a scientific discipline, sociology may be divided into three broad, analytical fields: the study of groups; institutional analysis; and the study of the social structure in general. Thus, the content of the rapidly expanding discipline of sociology is based upon culture and society, with emphasis placed upon the study of the various types of interaction and relationships which exist among individuals and human groups. In the study of such areas as social organization and disorganization, sociologists attempt to explain the evolution and change of social institutions and the changing nature of human attitudinal and value systems. Among the selected topics of investigation included within the stuffy of sociology are the changing nature of family life, institutional life, sexual attitudes, crime and violence, religious values, and the entire gamut of interpersonal relationships in politics and government. Indeed, many of the areas which professional sociologists study are, by their very nature, relatively familiar to many of us even though they are not clearly understood. The basic hypotheses of the discipline—that social life (both group and individual behavior) is patterned; that value and attitudes are learned, reinforced, and shared; that we as individuals are, in many respects, what others consider us to be—are ideas which most people now instinctively accept in order to live and function as members of society. These topics, which emphasize individual and group, behavior processes, then, comprise areas of concern for sociology as one of the behavioral science disciplines.

  During these last decades of the twentieth century, advanced Western society will continue to be confronted with crucial social issues in the context of both individual and group behavior patterns resulting from continued rapid technological expansion. The solution to the problem plaguing our complex society will become, to a much greater extent, the primary responsibility of sociology, social psychology, and cultural anthropology, the three major academic disciplines comprising the behavioral sciences. This trend is being witnessed currently by the increasing numbers of behavioral scientists that are being employed by government, by business and industry, by hospitals and other agencies devoted to problems of health care, by welfare agencies, by public educational systems, and by many other types of organizations in which some systematic knowledge of human behavior is required.

26. The primary purpose of the passage is to ______.

A. distinguish sociology in the United States from sociology in France and Germany

B. compare sociology with social psychology and cultural anthropology

C. provide a general discussion of modern Western sociology and its significance

D. show that sociology is the study of social institutions

27. Which of the following statements about sociology would the author be most likely to disagree with?

A. Most sociologists are interested in theoretical rather than practical questions.

B. There is a discernable structure to everyone’s behavior.

C. Human behavior can be systematically studied.

D. One’s self-image is not encoded genetically.

28. It can be inferred from the passage that social psychology and cultural anthropology ______.

A. are subareas of sociology

B. are other names for sociology

C. will achieve the academic respectability of sociology

D. may be consulted for solutions to sociological problems

29. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?

A. Sociology theory is rarely based on empirical evidence.

B. The problems facing sociologists do not change as times change.

C. The problems of immigrants in a new culture stimulate sociological research.

D. There are factors in interpersonal relationships that are not of interest to the sociologist.

30. The word “empirical” in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ______.

A. “relating to experience and observation”

B. “relating to behavior and manner”

C. “concerning academy”

D. “relying on education”

【答案与解析】

26.C  本文主要讲述了现代西方社会学的起源,主要研究领域以及对解决重大社会问题或现实问题的作用。

27.A  第一段第三、四句提到Indeed, it must be emphasized that from its beginning, sociology has had a very practical interest... This practical emphasis in the discipline has continued to persist to the present.由此可以推断作者不会认可“大多数社会学家对理论性的问题而非实际性的问题感兴趣”的说法。

28.D  第三段提到在二十世纪的上几个十年中,西方发达国家持续面临重大的社会问题,而在很大程度上这些问题的解决是sociology, social psychology, and cultural anthropology的首要责任。由此可以推知一些社会学中的问题可以咨询social psychology and cultural anthropology来寻求解决方法。

29.C  文章第二句话提到Rather the discipline evolved as a result of the experiences associated with the problems of an immigrant society caught in the turmoil of rapid industrialization and urban growth.社会学这门学科的演化是与一个移民社会陷在迅速的工业化和城市化的骚乱中所引起的问题相关的经验的结果。也就是说移民在新时代背景中遇到的问题促进了社会学的进化。选项C说法与之相符,且由此可排除选项A。

30.A  第一段第一句提到The field of sociology... developed as a result of a social experience...第二段提到the discipline evolved as a result of the experiences associated with...由此可以推知empirical与experiences有关系。empirical来自经验(或观察)的,经验主义的。

Passage Three

Having a few too many drinks can mean more than just a blackout or a bad hangover. People who engage in binge drinking are courting danger, experts warn.

  Binge drinking is most common at colleges and universities, where many young adults treat drinking to excess as a rite of passage. A 1997 study from the Harvard School of Public Health reports that 42.7% of all college students engage in binge drinking. The well-publicized deaths of several College students from binge drinking in 1997 highlight the risks.

  An 18-year-old freshman at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology drank himself into a coma and died. A 20-year-old fraternity pledge at Louisiana State University died from alcohol poisoning. “Alcohol is always toxic, it’s really a poison,” said Steven Schandler, professor of psychology at Chapman University and chief of addiction research at the Long Beach Veterans Affairs Health Care system, who added that binge drinking can lead to alcohol poisoning. “Because it’s a poison, like any other poison, if you take in a little bit, you might tolerate it, but if you take in a lot, you might die.”

  Administrators and doctors say that college freshmen are especially at risk for alcohol poisoning, in pan because they often lack the maturity to refrain or stop. And for some who may be new to drinking, their bodies have a relatively low tolerance for alcohol.

  But problems with alcohol are not limited to teenagers and young adults. A 39-year-old Buena Park man recently recalled that two days of steady imbibing on a trip to Las Vegas several years ago left him in bad shape.

  Doctors say blood alcohol levels of about 4%—five times the legal intoxication limit of 0.8%—can induce potentially lethal side effects in most people. Alcoholics have higher limits. Although not well understood, enzymes that break down and expel alcohol in the liver and kidneys do so more effectively in seasoned drinkers, allowing them to tolerate more, Schandler said.

Regardless of a person’s tolerance, alcohol exerts its influence when the amount of alcohol taken in exceeds the amount that the body can digest. At that point, alcohol passes from the bloodstream into the brain and begins its attack. Alcohol first affects the brain’s cortex, which controls more sophisticated thought processes. That’s why people generally become less inhibited under the influence of alcohol, and some are more willing to try things that could be dangerous to themselves and others.

  Coordination, mainly controlled by the cerebellum, is the next to go, leading to slurred speech and difficulty walking in a straight line. As excessive drinking continues, alcohol moves deeper into the brain until “it gets to the very basic structure of the brain stem that affects things like respiration and heart beat,” said Dr. Bret Ginther, an assistant clinical professor of emergency medicine at UC Irvine.

  At that point, people may pass out or fall into a coma. Their vital signs may weaken. “The most common cause of death from alcohol poisoning is respiratory arrest,” said Ginther. Eventually, the heart simply stops. Getting to that point is fairly unusual. But Ginther said that at least once or twice a month, patients are brought into the emergency room at UCI Medical Center in Orange suffering from alcohol poisoning. Signs of alcohol poisoning include vomiting, pallor, unresponsiveness and, in extreme cases, loss of consciousness.

College officials say they are always on the lookout for alcohol abuse but say there is no fail-safe method to keep students from drinking. Many colleges try to educate students, especially those caught drinking illegally or causing disruptions. The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention in Newton, Mass, advocates a community-based approach that includes administrators, faculty, police and businesses in the fight to curb binge drinking, in part by being on alert for people abusing alcohol. The center also stresses the importance of parental guidance and urges parents to hove frank discussions with their children about excessive drinking.

31. From the passage, we can learn that “binge-drinking” is ______.

A. an excessive consumption of alcohol

B. drinking oneself into a coma

C. drinking poisonous alcohol

D. a kind of illegal drinking

32. Why are college freshmen especially at risk for alcohol poisoning according to administrators and doctors?

A. Their bodies are not used to alcohol.

B. They can not refrain themselves.

C. They are under greater pressure.

D. Both A and B

33.What can enzymes do when one is drunk?

A. They help drunken people survive when they take in more alcohol than tolerable.

B. They help people in coma regain consciousness.

C. They expel alcohol in the liver and kidneys.

D. They can make people stay conscious.

34.Which of the following is TRUE?

A. College officials are aware of the seriousness of students’ binge drinking but can not do anything.

B. College officials are taking measures to prevent binge drinking though without much success.

C. College officials think that they do not have any methods to stop students from drinking.

D. College officials just stand by without doing anything to the problem.

35. Binge drinking may most seriously lead to ______.

A. death 

B. craziness

C. disability

D. unconsciousness

【答案与解析】

31.A  文章第一句话提到喝太多的酒不仅仅意味着暂时的意志丧失和不好的宿醉。专家警告说binge drinking的人很容易招致危险。由此可知“喝太多的酒”与“binge drinking”是同一回事。且本文在讲binge drinking时主要讲过多alcohol带来的危害,所以选项A为正确答案。binge drinking酗酒。

32.D  第四段提到they (freshmen) often lack the maturity to refrain or stop. And for some who may be new to drinking, their bodies have a relatively low tolerance for alcohol.由此可知答案。

33.C  第六段提到...enzymes that break down and expel alcohol in the liver and kidneys...,enzymes是分解和驱除肝和肾中的酒精的。enzymes生化酶,酵母,酵素。expel驱逐,逐出。

34.B  最后一段提到大学行政官员一直很关注学生酗酒的问题但没有百分百成功的方法可以阻止他们。接下来讲他们采取的措施:try to educate students,a community-based approach,力劝酗酒孩子的父母与孩子交流等。

35.A  文章第二段最后一句话提到1997年数名大学生死于酗酒。第三段一开始列举了两名死于酗酒的大学生,在最后一句中专家指出“酒是毒药,少量饮酒身体还可以适应,过多的饮酒会招致死亡”。

Passage Four

  For multinational corporations, tax planning has become an extremely complex affair. It has often been stated that no multinational corporation possesses the ultimate tax expertise. There are just too many countries and regions involved and thus a web of tax regulations. Therefore, in addition to having their own experts, MNCs rely heavily on local tax experts and legal counsel.

  Taxes have a very important impact on foreign direct investment decisions. Taxes will determine the financial structure of a subsidiary, and they will influence pricing decisions. They may also lead to the formation of holding companies. An MNC may decide to establish a branch rather than a subsidiary because of a given tax situation. The absence of a tax treaty between the country of a would-be investor and the nation where a foreign investment is to take place might lead to cancellation of investment plans. An unfavorable depreciation allowance may keep the foreign investor out. This unit will deal with the different tax systems in the world and their impact on an MNC’c global strategy.

  Basically, any tax system can be divided into direct and indirect taxes. Corporate and individual income taxes are direct; value-added taxes, sales taxes, and import duties are indirect taxes. Corporate income taxes (taxes levied on earnings) vary among the industrialized nations. France, the United State, Holland, Canada, and Germany have rates of around 50 percent; Italy, the United Kingdom, and Japan have rates of between 36 and 40 percent.

  Less developed countries usually have lower corporate tax rates, in order to attract foreign investment. Thus, Brazil has a rate of 30 percent and Indonesia has a 40 percent tax rate. A corporate tax is levied on taxable earnings. Taxable earnings are more significant than the tax rate itself. They determine what can be deducted before the tax is computed; in other words, these items are tax deductible. Countries differ greatly in determining taxable earnings. Some allow accelerated depreciation, whereby the asset (usually the plant or equipment) is written off at a substantially higher rate during the first years than in the later years. This allows for smaller taxable earnings in the early years. Other countries allow tax-free investment reserves. These are used at a later stage for investment in underdeveloped areas of countries or are sent when countries are in a recession.

  A recent type of tax that has won recognition in the European Common Market is value-added tax (VAT). This is a national sales tax levied at each stage of production or at the sale of consumer goods. The tax is assessed in proportion to the value added during that stage. Generally, manufacturing goods, such as plant and equipment, have been exempted from this tax. In most cases, food items also have been exempted.

  Here is an example of how VAT works. A tree owner who sells part of a tree to a lumber mill for $1 must set aside ten cents VAT to pay to the government. The lumber mill processes the tree into building material and sells the wood for $3 to a lumber Wholesaler. The mill adds $2 in value, and thus sets aside 10 percent of the added value, or twenty cents, to pay to the government. And so the VAT continues until the final sale.

  The VAT system offers advantages, such as rebates on exports. Profitable and unprofitable firms are taxed alike, as there is no possibility of tax deductions to determine taxable income. A badly run company is, therefore, forced to improve or go out of business. Further, VAT is easy to calculate and collect. But VAT is often accused of having contributed to serious inflation in countries where it was introduced, notably in Western Europe.

36.Tax systems can be divided into ______.

A. income taxes and direct taxes

B. indirect taxes and direct taxes

C. value-added taxes and sales taxes

D. import duties and sales taxes

37. One arrives at taxable earnings when ______.

A. all tax-deductible items have been subtracted

B. accelerated depreciation is allowed for

C. tax-free investment reserves are allowed for

D. assets are written off

38. The reason no multinational corporation possesses the ultimate tax expertise is that ______.

A. an MNC is not allowed to learn ultimate tax expertise

B. taxes have a very important impact on foreign direct investment decision

C. there are too many countries and regions involved and their tax systems are complicated

D. an unfavorable depreciation allowance may keep the foreign investor out

39. Which of the following is not an advantage of a VAT system?

A. Rebates on exports.

B. Profitable or unprofitable firms are taxed alike.

C. Easy to calculate and collect.

D. Contributions to serious inflation.

40. Why did the less developed countries usually have lower corporate tax rates?

A. They want to invest more money on other projects.

B. The less developed countries want to attract more foreign investment.

C. Extra money should be spent on foreign investment.

D. Corporate tax rates are less important to the development of the less developed countries.

【答案与解析】

36.B  第三段第一句话明确提到Basically, any tax system can be divided into direct and indirect taxes.所以答案为选项B。

37.A  第四段提到公司税是按应税收入征收的。应税收入决定哪些收入在计算税项时可扣除。即所有可扣除的税款被扣除后就是应税收入了。下文讲到各个国家对应税收入的规定不同,B、C项是个别国家的规定。

38.C  第一段提到对跨国公司来说税务计划是一件极其复杂的事情,他们牵涉到太多的国家和地区,税务管理就是一张集结的网,因此他们不聘用ultimate tax expertise,相反他们主要依赖当地的税务专家和法律顾问。

39.D  文章最后一句话提到VAT is often accused of having contributed to serious inflation in countries... VAT经常被指控在某些国家导致了严重的通货膨胀,因此选项D是VAT的缺点而不是优点。

40.B  第四段第一句话提到Less developed countries usually have lower corporate tax rates, in order to attract foreign investment.所以答案为选项B。

Passage Five

In his 1976 study of slavery in the United State, Herbert Gutman, like Fogel, Engerman, and Genovese, has rightly stressed the slaves’ achievements. But unlike these historians, Gutman gives plantation owners little credit for these achievements. Rather, Gutman argues that one must look to the Black family and the slaves’ extended kinship system to understand how crucial achievements, such as the maintenance of a cultural heritage and the development of a communal consciousness, were possible. His findings’ compel attention.

Gutman recreates the family and extended kinship structure mainly through an ingenious use of what any historian should draw upon, quantifiable data, derived in this case mostly from plantation birth register. He also uses accounts of ex-slaves to probe the human reality behind his statistics. These sources indicate that the two-parent household predominated in slave quarters just as it did among freed slaves after emancipation. Although Gutman admits that forced separation by sale was frequent, he shows that the slaves’ preference, revealed most clearly on plantations where sale was infrequent, was very much for stable monogamy. In less conclusive fashion Fogel, Engerman, and Genovese had already indicated the predominance of two-parent households: however, only Gutman emphasizes the preference for stable monogamy and points out what stable monogamy meant for the slaves’ cultural heritage. Gutman argues convincingly that the stability of the Black family encouraged the transmission of—and so was crucial in sustaining—the Black heritage of folklore, music, and religious expression from one generation to another, a heritage that slaves were continually fashioning out of their African and American experiences.

Gutman’s examination of other facets of kinship also produces important findings. Gutman discovers that cousins rarely married an exogamous tendency that contrasted sharply with the endogamy practiced by the plantation owners. This preference for exogamy, Gutman suggests, may have derived from West African rules governing marriage, which, though they differed from one tribal group to another, all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin. This taboo against cousins’ marring is important, argues Gutman, because it is one of many indications of a strong awareness among slaves of an extended kinship network. The fact that distantly related kin would care for children separated from their families also suggests this awareness. When blood relationship were few as in newly created plantations in the Southwest, “fictive” kinship arrangements took their place until a new pattern of consanguinity developed. Gutman presents convincing evidence that this extended kinship structure—which he believes developed by the mid-to-late eighteenth century—provided the foundations for the strong communal consciousness that existed among slaves.

In sum, Gutman’s study is significant because it offers a closely reasoned and original explanation of some of the slaves’ achievements, one that correctly emphasizes the resources that slaves themselves possessed.

41. With which of the following statements regarding the resources that historians ought to use would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?

A. Historians ought to make use of written rather than oral accounts.

B. Historians should rely primarily on birth registers.

C. Historians should rely exclusively on data that can be quantified.

D. Historians ought to make use of data that can be quantified.

42. Which of the following statements about the formation of the Black heritage of folklore, music, and religious expression is best supported by the information presented in the passage?

A. The heritage was formed primarily out of the experience of those slaves who attempted to preserve the stability of their families.

B. The heritage was not formed out of the experiences of those slaves who married their cousins.

C. The heritage was formed more out of the African than out of the American experiences of slaves.

D. The heritage was not formed out of the experiences of only a single generation of slaves.

43. Which of the following statements concerning the marriage practices of plantation owners during the period of Black slavery in the United States can most logically be inferred from the information in the passage?

A. These practices began to alter sometime around the mid-eighteenth century.

B. These practices varied markedly from one region of the country to another.

C. Plantation owners usually based their choice of marriage partners on economic considerations.

D. Plantation owners often married their cousins.

44. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

A. The author compares and contrasts the work of several historians and then discusses areas for possible new research.

B. The author presents his thesis, draws on work of several historians for evidence to support his thesis, and concludes by reiterating his thesis.

C. The author describes some features of a historical study and then uses those features to put forth his own argument.

D. The author presents the general argument of a historical study, describes the study in more detail, and concludes with a brief judgment of the study’s value.

45. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage based on its content?

A. The influence of Herbert Gutman on Historians of Slavery in the United States.

B. Gutman’s Explanation of How Slaves Could Maintain a Cultural Heritage and Develop a Communal Consciousness.

C. Slavery in the United States: New Controversy About an Old Subject.

D. The Black Heritage of Folklore, Music, and Religious Expression: Its Growing Influence.

【答案与解析】

41.D  第二段第一句提到Gutman recreates...mainly through an ingenious use of what any historian should draw upon, quantifiable data...由此可看出作者认为历史学家应该用可计量的数据来做研究。C项中的exclusively(排除其他地,专门地)说法太绝对。B项中的birth registers只是quantifiable data的一个特殊实例。

42.D  第二段最后一句提到...the stability of the Black family encouraged...the Black heritage of folklore, music, and religious expression from one generation to another... out of their African and American experiences.只有选项D的陈述与之最相符。

43.D  第三段第二句提到Gutman discovers that cousins rarely married an exogamous tendency that contrasted sharply with the endogamy practiced by the plantation owners.古特曼发现在异族通婚的趋势下同族人很少通婚,这与实行族内通婚制的种植园主形成强烈对比。即种植园主经常族内通婚。cousins同族人,亲戚。exogamous异族通婚的。endogamy族内通婚,近亲繁殖。本段最后一句提到by mid-to-late eighteenth century,种植园主的婚姻习俗developed,而不是began to alter。他们的婚姻习俗differed from one tribal group to another,但都禁止近亲通婚,这与B项说法不符。C项在文中没有体现。

44.D  文章第一段提出在众多的历史研究中,Gutman对美国奴隶制的研究尤其引人注目;第二、三段详细阐述了他的研究方法与成果;最后一段总结其研究的重要性与价值。

45.B  第一段提出与其他的历史学家不同,Gutman提出要理解文化遗产的保存和集体意识的形成与发展,就得在黑人家庭和奴隶的大家族体系方面找答案。接下来详细描述了Gutman所做的相关研究,因此B项为文章的最佳标题。

III. Translation (20%)

Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese. Write your translation on the answer sheet.

   Online newspapers are a look into the future, and just pondering it raises the question of whether it isn’t nicer getting your daily news curled up in your favorite chair with your ballpoint pen handy to circle items of interest, or scissors ready to snip out articles you want to save. The Gazette Company is betting its subscribers want both electronic and paper options, and so far it seems to be right.

The rest of the world is moving into cyberspace more slowly than the United States, and, in the developing world, the Internet has hardly penetrated at all. U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan is determined to change this through the United Nations Information Technology Service, which will train large numbers of people to tap into the income-enhancing power of the Internet. Annan is also proposing an Internet health network that will provide state-of-the-art medical knowledge to 10,000 clinics and hospitals in poor countries.

  The onrushing Cyber Age has given newfound power to us all, as seen in Jody Williams’s one-woman organization using e-mail to promote a global ban on land mines. Yet, this is but a glimpse of what’s ahead in the minds of those immersed in this great and accelerating transformation.

At Microsoft, Bill Gates predicts that by 2018 major newspapers will “publish their last paper editions and move solely to electronic distribution,” and that by 2020 dictionaries will redefine books as “eBook titles read on screen.”

【参考译文】

在线报纸是对未来的一种展望。只需沉思片刻你就能提出这样一个问题:每天蜷缩在舒适的椅子上,顺手用圆珠笔将你所关心的内容圈划下来,或用剪刀将你想保存的文章剪下来,这样是不是更好些?报业公司打赌说,它的订户既想要电子刊物又想要印刷版报纸。迄今为止看来它是对的。

与美国相比,世界其他地方进入网络空间的速度较慢,而在发展中国家,因特网几乎还没渗入进去。联合国秘书长安南决心通过联合国信息技术服务机构来改变这种情况。根据他的计划,该机构将训练大量人员开发互联网的增收潜力。安南还建议建立一个因特网健康网络,以便为贫困国家的10000家诊所和医院提供最先进的医学知识。

势不可挡的电子时代赋予我们大家一种全新的动力。正如朱迪·威廉姆斯,她独自创办的机构利用电子邮件倡导全球禁止使用地雷。不过,在那些投身于这场迅速发展的伟大变革中的人的心目中,这只不过是未来前景的一瞥。

在微软公司,比尔盖茨预言到2018年主要报纸将“出版他们的最后一张版本,然后转入完全出版电子读物”,而到2020年,词典将重新把书定义为“在屏幕上阅读的电子图书”。

Ⅳ.Writing (20%)

Directions: Read the following news report and write a composition of 250-300 words on Overhaul of National Holiday System in China. Write your composition on the answer sheet.

The Chinese Government announced a major overhaul (改变) of its national holiday system recently. The three-day May Day holiday will be cut into one day while the Tomb-sweeping Festival, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid-Autumn Festival will become national holidays. That raises the number of paid holidays to 11 from 10.

【参考范文】

Overhaul of National Holiday System in China

As is known to us all, there is only one traditional festival among the legal holidays, namely, spring festival before a major overhaul of national holiday system was announced by the Chinese Government recently. The three-day May Day holiday will be curtailed to one day. Instead, the Tomb-sweeping Festival, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid-Autumn Festival will become national holidays. Thus, the number of paid holidays will rise from 10 to 11.

Voices diverge when it comes to the question whether this rearrangement is favorable for the general public. As far as I am concerned, it’s really a wise and considerate reform in national holiday system.

In the first place, though long legal holidays like the National Day holiday, which is also known as the Golden Week, can invariably boost the domestic consumption, complaints about overcrowding, poor service, a scarcity of hotel rooms and damage to scenic spots, especially historic sites, during the Golden Week breaks have spurred debate over the merits of the weeklong holiday concept. On that score, the new arrangement not only respects people’s right to rest, as there are now more holidays, but also spread the holidays through the year more reasonably. As a result, employees can arrange their personal and family lives in a more flexible way.

Above all, making traditional festivals legal holidays will help carry forward Chinese history and culture, build a harmonious society, enhance the cohesion of the Chinese nation and eventually benefit more than 1.3 billion Chinese citizens. Nowadays, traditional festivals together with their culture are drawing more and more attention from the people as well as the government. Under the context of globalization, making traditional festivals legal holidays is an effective way to preserve non-material cultural heritage and maintain Chinese character.

In all, we should embrace such arrangement and keep in mind the traditional culture conveyed in our traditional festivals when we enjoy those holidays.

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